Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing Author Yoav Goldberg
ISBN-10 9781627052955
Release 2017-04-17
Pages 309
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.



Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing Author Yoav Goldberg
ISBN-10 9781681731551
Release 2017-04-17
Pages 309
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.



Neural Network Methods for Natural Language Processing

Neural Network Methods for Natural Language Processing Author Yoav Goldberg
ISBN-10 1627052984
Release 2017
Pages 287
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.



Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing Author Christopher D. Manning
ISBN-10 0262133601
Release 1999
Pages 680
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An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.



Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing

Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing Author Risto Miikkulainen
ISBN-10 0262132907
Release 1993
Pages 391
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Risto Miikkulainen draws on recent connectionist work in language comprehension tocreate a model that can understand natural language. Using the DISCERN system as an example, hedescribes a general approach to building high-level cognitive models from distributed neuralnetworks and shows how the special properties of such networks are useful in modeling humanperformance. In this approach connectionist networks are not only plausible models of isolatedcognitive phenomena, but also sufficient constituents for complete artificial intelligencesystems.Distributed neural networks have been very successful in modeling isolated cognitivephenomena, but complex high-level behavior has been tractable only with symbolic artificialintelligence techniques. Aiming to bridge this gap, Miikkulainen describes DISCERN, a completenatural language processing system implemented entirely at the subsymbolic level. In DISCERN,distributed neural network models of parsing, generating, reasoning, lexical processing, andepisodic memory are integrated into a single system that learns to read, paraphrase, and answerquestions about stereotypical narratives.Miikkulainen's work, which includes a comprehensive surveyof the connectionist literature related to natural language processing, will prove especiallyvaluable to researchers interested in practical techniques for high-level representation,inferencing, memory modeling, and modular connectionist architectures.Risto Miikkulainen is anAssistant Professor in the Department of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas atAustin.



Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing

Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing Author Emily M. Bender
ISBN-10 9781627050128
Release 2013-06-01
Pages 184
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Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages



Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing

Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing Author Palash Goyal
ISBN-10 148423684X
Release 2018-08-11
Pages 219
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Discover the concepts of deep learning used for natural language processing (NLP), with full-fledged examples of neural network models such as recurrent neural networks, long short-term memory networks, and sequence-2-sequence models. You’ll start by covering the mathematical prerequisites and the fundamentals of deep learning and NLP with practical examples. The first three chapters of the book cover the basics of NLP, starting with word-vector representation before moving onto advanced algorithms. The final chapters focus entirely on implementation, and deal with sophisticated architectures such as RNN, LSTM, and Seq2seq, using Python tools: TensorFlow, and Keras. Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing follows a progressive approach and combines all the knowledge you have gained to build a question-answer chatbot system. This book is a good starting point for people who want to get started in deep learning for NLP. All the code presented in the book will be available in the form of IPython notebooks and scripts, which allow you to try out the examples and extend them in interesting ways. What You Will Learn Gain the fundamentals of deep learning and its mathematical prerequisites Discover deep learning frameworks in Python Develop a chatbot Implement a research paper on sentiment classification Who This Book Is For Software developers who are curious to try out deep learning with NLP.



Deep Learning in Natural Language Processing

Deep Learning in Natural Language Processing Author Li Deng
ISBN-10 9789811052095
Release 2018-05-23
Pages 329
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In recent years, deep learning has fundamentally changed the landscapes of a number of areas in artificial intelligence, including speech, vision, natural language, robotics, and game playing. In particular, the striking success of deep learning in a wide variety of natural language processing (NLP) applications has served as a benchmark for the advances in one of the most important tasks in artificial intelligence. This book reviews the state of the art of deep learning research and its successful applications to major NLP tasks, including speech recognition and understanding, dialogue systems, lexical analysis, parsing, knowledge graphs, machine translation, question answering, sentiment analysis, social computing, and natural language generation from images. Outlining and analyzing various research frontiers of NLP in the deep learning era, it features self-contained, comprehensive chapters written by leading researchers in the field. A glossary of technical terms and commonly used acronyms in the intersection of deep learning and NLP is also provided. The book appeals to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, lecturers and industrial researchers, as well as anyone interested in deep learning and natural language processing.



Linguistic Structure Prediction

Linguistic Structure Prediction Author Noah A. Smith
ISBN-10 9781608454051
Release 2011
Pages 248
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A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. We also survey natural language processing problems to which these methods are being applied, and we address related topics in probabilistic inference, optimization, and experimental methodology. Table of Contents: Representations and Linguistic Data / Decoding: Making Predictions / Learning Structure from Annotated Data / Learning Structure from Incomplete Data / Beyond Decoding: Inference



Semi Supervised Learning and Domain Adaptation in Natural Language Processing

Semi Supervised Learning and Domain Adaptation in Natural Language Processing Author Anders Søgaard
ISBN-10 9781608459865
Release 2013-05-01
Pages 103
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This book introduces basic supervised learning algorithms applicable to natural language processing (NLP) and shows how the performance of these algorithms can often be improved by exploiting the marginal distribution of large amounts of unlabeled data. One reason for that is data sparsity, i.e., the limited amounts of data we have available in NLP. However, in most real-world NLP applications our labeled data is also heavily biased. This book introduces extensions of supervised learning algorithms to cope with data sparsity and different kinds of sampling bias. This book is intended to be both readable by first-year students and interesting to the expert audience. My intention was to introduce what is necessary to appreciate the major challenges we face in contemporary NLP related to data sparsity and sampling bias, without wasting too much time on details about supervised learning algorithms or particular NLP applications. I use text classification, part-of-speech tagging, and dependency parsing as running examples, and limit myself to a small set of cardinal learning algorithms. I have worried less about theoretical guarantees ("this algorithm never does too badly") than about useful rules of thumb ("in this case this algorithm may perform really well"). In NLP, data is so noisy, biased, and non-stationary that few theoretical guarantees can be established and we are typically left with our gut feelings and a catalogue of crazy ideas. I hope this book will provide its readers with both. Throughout the book we include snippets of Python code and empirical evaluations, when relevant.



Natural Language Annotation for Machine Learning

Natural Language Annotation for Machine Learning Author James Pustejovsky
ISBN-10 9781449359768
Release 2012-10-11
Pages 342
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Create your own natural language training corpus for machine learning. Whether you’re working with English, Chinese, or any other natural language, this hands-on book guides you through a proven annotation development cycle—the process of adding metadata to your training corpus to help ML algorithms work more efficiently. You don’t need any programming or linguistics experience to get started. Using detailed examples at every step, you’ll learn how the MATTER Annotation Development Process helps you Model, Annotate, Train, Test, Evaluate, and Revise your training corpus. You also get a complete walkthrough of a real-world annotation project. Define a clear annotation goal before collecting your dataset (corpus) Learn tools for analyzing the linguistic content of your corpus Build a model and specification for your annotation project Examine the different annotation formats, from basic XML to the Linguistic Annotation Framework Create a gold standard corpus that can be used to train and test ML algorithms Select the ML algorithms that will process your annotated data Evaluate the test results and revise your annotation task Learn how to use lightweight software for annotating texts and adjudicating the annotations This book is a perfect companion to O’Reilly’s Natural Language Processing with Python.



Python Natural Language Processing

Python Natural Language Processing Author Jalaj Thanaki
ISBN-10 9781787285521
Release 2017-07-31
Pages 486
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Leverage the power of machine learning and deep learning to extract information from text data About This Book Implement Machine Learning and Deep Learning techniques for efficient natural language processing Get started with NLTK and implement NLP in your applications with ease Understand and interpret human languages with the power of text analysis via Python Who This Book Is For This book is intended for Python developers who wish to start with natural language processing and want to make their applications smarter by implementing NLP in them. What You Will Learn Focus on Python programming paradigms, which are used to develop NLP applications Understand corpus analysis and different types of data attribute. Learn NLP using Python libraries such as NLTK, Polyglot, SpaCy, Standford CoreNLP and so on Learn about Features Extraction and Feature selection as part of Features Engineering. Explore the advantages of vectorization in Deep Learning. Get a better understanding of the architecture of a rule-based system. Optimize and fine-tune Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning algorithms for NLP problems. Identify Deep Learning techniques for Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Generation problems. In Detail This book starts off by laying the foundation for Natural Language Processing and why Python is one of the best options to build an NLP-based expert system with advantages such as Community support, availability of frameworks and so on. Later it gives you a better understanding of available free forms of corpus and different types of dataset. After this, you will know how to choose a dataset for natural language processing applications and find the right NLP techniques to process sentences in datasets and understand their structure. You will also learn how to tokenize different parts of sentences and ways to analyze them. During the course of the book, you will explore the semantic as well as syntactic analysis of text. You will understand how to solve various ambiguities in processing human language and will come across various scenarios while performing text analysis. You will learn the very basics of getting the environment ready for natural language processing, move on to the initial setup, and then quickly understand sentences and language parts. You will learn the power of Machine Learning and Deep Learning to extract information from text data. By the end of the book, you will have a clear understanding of natural language processing and will have worked on multiple examples that implement NLP in the real world. Style and approach This book teaches the readers various aspects of natural language Processing using NLTK. It takes the reader from the basic to advance level in a smooth way.



Handbook of Natural Language Processing

Handbook of Natural Language Processing Author Robert Dale
ISBN-10 0824790006
Release 2000-07-25
Pages 964
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This study explores the design and application of natural language text-based processing systems, based on generative linguistics, empirical copus analysis, and artificial neural networks. It emphasizes the practical tools to accommodate the selected system.



Speech and Language Processing

Speech and Language Processing Author Daniel Jurafsky
ISBN-10 9780133252934
Release 2014-12-30
Pages 1024
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This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. For undergraduate or advanced undergraduate courses in Classical Natural Language Processing, Statistical Natural Language Processing, Speech Recognition, Computational Linguistics, and Human Language Processing. An explosion of Web-based language techniques, merging of distinct fields, availability of phone-based dialogue systems, and much more make this an exciting time in speech and language processing. The first of its kind to thoroughly cover language technology – at all levels and with all modern technologies – this text takes an empirical approach to the subject, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corporations. The authors cover areas that traditionally are taught in different courses, to describe a unified vision of speech and language processing. Emphasis is on practical applications and scientific evaluation. An accompanying Website contains teaching materials for instructors, with pointers to language processing resources on the Web. The Second Edition offers a significant amount of new and extended material. Supplements: Click on the "Resources" tab to View Downloadable Files: Solutions Power Point Lecture Slides - Chapters 1-5, 8-10, 12-13 and 24 Now Available! For additional resourcse visit the author website: http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~martin/slp.html



Cognitive Approach to Natural Language Processing

Cognitive Approach to Natural Language Processing Author Bernadette Sharp
ISBN-10 9780081023433
Release 2017-05-31
Pages 234
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As natural language processing spans many different disciplines, it is sometimes difficult to understand the contributions and the challenges that each of them presents. This book explores the special relationship between natural language processing and cognitive science, and the contribution of computer science to these two fields. It is based on the recent research papers submitted at the international workshops of Natural Language and Cognitive Science (NLPCS) which was launched in 2004 in an effort to bring together natural language researchers, computer scientists, and cognitive and linguistic scientists to collaborate together and advance research in natural language processing. The chapters cover areas related to language understanding, language generation, word association, word sense disambiguation, word predictability, text production and authorship attribution. This book will be relevant to students and researchers interested in the interdisciplinary nature of language processing. Discusses the problems and issues that researchers face, providing an opportunity for developers of NLP systems to learn from cognitive scientists, cognitive linguistics and neurolinguistics Provides a valuable opportunity to link the study of natural language processing to the understanding of the cognitive processes of the brain



Handbook of Neural Computation

Handbook of Neural Computation Author Pijush Samui
ISBN-10 9780128113196
Release 2017-07-18
Pages 658
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Handbook of Neural Computation explores neural computation applications, ranging from conventional fields of mechanical and civil engineering, to electronics, electrical engineering and computer science. This book covers the numerous applications of artificial and deep neural networks and their uses in learning machines, including image and speech recognition, natural language processing and risk analysis. Edited by renowned authorities in this field, this work is comprised of articles from reputable industry and academic scholars and experts from around the world. Each contributor presents a specific research issue with its recent and future trends. As the demand rises in the engineering and medical industries for neural networks and other machine learning methods to solve different types of operations, such as data prediction, classification of images, analysis of big data, and intelligent decision-making, this book provides readers with the latest, cutting-edge research in one comprehensive text. Features high-quality research articles on multivariate adaptive regression splines, the minimax probability machine, and more Discusses machine learning techniques, including classification, clustering, regression, web mining, information retrieval and natural language processing Covers supervised, unsupervised, reinforced, ensemble, and nature-inspired learning methods



The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing

The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing Author Alexander Clark
ISBN-10 9781118448670
Release 2013-04-24
Pages 650
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This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications in computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and the creation of effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source for computational linguists and software engineers developing NLP applications in industrial research and development labs of software companies