The Clean Coder

The Clean Coder Author Robert C. Martin
ISBN-10 0132542889
Release 2011-05-13
Pages 336
Download Link Click Here

Programmers who endure and succeed amidst swirling uncertainty and nonstop pressure share a common attribute: They care deeply about the practice of creating software. They treat it as a craft. They are professionals. In The Clean Coder: A Code of Conduct for Professional Programmers, legendary software expert Robert C. Martin introduces the disciplines, techniques, tools, and practices of true software craftsmanship. This book is packed with practical advice–about everything from estimating and coding to refactoring and testing. It covers much more than technique: It is about attitude. Martin shows how to approach software development with honor, self-respect, and pride; work well and work clean; communicate and estimate faithfully; face difficult decisions with clarity and honesty; and understand that deep knowledge comes with a responsibility to act. Readers will learn What it means to behave as a true software craftsman How to deal with conflict, tight schedules, and unreasonable managers How to get into the flow of coding, and get past writer’s block How to handle unrelenting pressure and avoid burnout How to combine enduring attitudes with new development paradigms How to manage your time, and avoid blind alleys, marshes, bogs, and swamps How to foster environments where programmers and teams can thrive When to say “No”–and how to say it When to say “Yes”–and what yes really means Great software is something to marvel at: powerful, elegant, functional, a pleasure to work with as both a developer and as a user. Great software isn’t written by machines. It is written by professionals with an unshakable commitment to craftsmanship. The Clean Coder will help you become one of them–and earn the pride and fulfillment that they alone possess.

Clean Code

Clean Code Author Robert C. Martin
ISBN-10 9780132350884
Release 2009
Pages 431
Download Link Click Here

Looks at the principles and clean code, includes case studies showcasing the practices of writing clean code, and contains a list of heuristics and "smells" accumulated from the process of writing clean code.

The Robert C Martin Clean Code Collection Collection

The Robert C  Martin Clean Code Collection  Collection Author Robert C Martin
ISBN-10 9780132928472
Release 2011-12-09
Pages 703
Download Link Click Here

"The Robert C. Martin Clean Code Collection "consists of two bestselling eBooks: Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftmanship The Clean Coder: A Code of Conduct for Professional Programmers In "Clean Code," legendary software expert Robert C. Martin has teamed up with his colleagues from Object Mentor to distill their best agile practice of cleaning code "on the fly" into a book that will instill within you the values of a software craftsman and make you a better programmer--but only if you work at it. You will be challenged to think about what's right about that code and what's wrong with it. More important, you will be challenged to reassess your professional values and your commitment to your craft. In "The Clean Coder," Martin introduces the disciplines, techniques, tools, and practices of true software craftsmanship. This book is packed with practical advice--about everything from estimating and coding to refactoring and testing. It covers much more than technique: It is about attitude. Martin shows how to approach software development with honor, self-respect, and pride; work well and work clean; communicate and estimate faithfully; face difficult decisions with clarity and honesty; and understand that deep knowledge comes with a responsibility to act. Readers of this collection will come away understanding How to tell the difference between good and bad code How to write good code and how to transform bad code into good code How to create good names, good functions, good objects, and good classes How to format code for maximum readability How to implement complete error handling without obscuring code logic How to unit test and practice test-driven development What it means to behave as a true software craftsman How to deal with conflict, tight schedules, and unreasonable managers How to get into the flow of coding and get past writer's block How to handle unrelenting pressure and avoid burnout How to combine enduring attitudes with new development paradigms How to manage your time and avoid blind alleys, marshes, bogs, and swamps How to foster environments where programmers and teams can thrive When to say "No"--and how to say it When to say "Yes"--and what yes really means

Clean Architecture

Clean Architecture Author Robert C. Martin
ISBN-10 9780134494326
Release 2017-09-12
Pages 432
Download Link Click Here

Practical Software Architecture Solutions from the Legendary Robert C. Martin (“Uncle Bob”) By applying universal rules of software architecture, you can dramatically improve developer productivity throughout the life of any software system. Now, building upon the success of his best-selling books Clean Code and The Clean Coder, legendary software craftsman Robert C. Martin (“Uncle Bob”) reveals those rules and helps you apply them. Martin’s Clean Architecture doesn’t merely present options. Drawing on over a half-century of experience in software environments of every imaginable type, Martin tells you what choices to make and why they are critical to your success. As you’ve come to expect from Uncle Bob, this book is packed with direct, no-nonsense solutions for the real challenges you’ll face–the ones that will make or break your projects. Learn what software architects need to achieve–and core disciplines and practices for achieving it Master essential software design principles for addressing function, component separation, and data management See how programming paradigms impose discipline by restricting what developers can do Understand what’s critically important and what’s merely a “detail” Implement optimal, high-level structures for web, database, thick-client, console, and embedded applications Define appropriate boundaries and layers, and organize components and services See why designs and architectures go wrong, and how to prevent (or fix) these failures Clean Architecture is essential reading for every current or aspiring software architect, systems analyst, system designer, and software manager–and for every programmer who must execute someone else’s designs. Register your product for convenient access to downloads, updates, and/or corrections as they become available.

Agile Principles Patterns and Practices in C

Agile Principles  Patterns  and Practices in C Author Robert C. Martin
ISBN-10 0132797143
Release 2006-07-20
Pages 768
Download Link Click Here

With the award-winning book Agile Software Development: Principles, Patterns, and Practices, Robert C. Martin helped bring Agile principles to tens of thousands of Java and C++ programmers. Now .NET programmers have a definitive guide to agile methods with this completely updated volume from Robert C. Martin and Micah Martin, Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices in C#. This book presents a series of case studies illustrating the fundamentals of Agile development and Agile design, and moves quickly from UML models to real C# code. The introductory chapters lay out the basics of the agile movement, while the later chapters show proven techniques in action. The book includes many source code examples that are also available for download from the authors’ Web site. Readers will come away from this book understanding Agile principles, and the fourteen practices of Extreme Programming Spiking, splitting, velocity, and planning iterations and releases Test-driven development, test-first design, and acceptance testing Refactoring with unit testing Pair programming Agile design and design smells The five types of UML diagrams and how to use them effectively Object-oriented package design and design patterns How to put all of it together for a real-world project Whether you are a C# programmer or a Visual Basic or Java programmer learning C#, a software development manager, or a business analyst, Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices in C# is the first book you should read to understand agile software and how it applies to programming in the .NET Framework.

Working Effectively with Legacy Code

Working Effectively with Legacy Code Author Michael Feathers
ISBN-10 9780132931755
Release 2004-09-22
Pages 456
Download Link Click Here

Get more out of your legacy systems: more performance, functionality, reliability, and manageability Is your code easy to change? Can you get nearly instantaneous feedback when you do change it? Do you understand it? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you have legacy code, and it is draining time and money away from your development efforts. In this book, Michael Feathers offers start-to-finish strategies for working more effectively with large, untested legacy code bases. This book draws on material Michael created for his renowned Object Mentor seminars: techniques Michael has used in mentoring to help hundreds of developers, technical managers, and testers bring their legacy systems under control. The topics covered include Understanding the mechanics of software change: adding features, fixing bugs, improving design, optimizing performance Getting legacy code into a test harness Writing tests that protect you against introducing new problems Techniques that can be used with any language or platform—with examples in Java, C++, C, and C# Accurately identifying where code changes need to be made Coping with legacy systems that aren't object-oriented Handling applications that don't seem to have any structure This book also includes a catalog of twenty-four dependency-breaking techniques that help you work with program elements in isolation and make safer changes.

Building Maintainable Software Java Edition

Building Maintainable Software  Java Edition Author Joost Visser
ISBN-10 9781491953495
Release 2016-01-28
Pages 168
Download Link Click Here

Have you ever felt frustrated working with someone else’s code? Difficult-to-maintain source code is a big problem in software development today, leading to costly delays and defects. Be part of the solution. With this practical book, you’ll learn 10 easy-to-follow guidelines for delivering Java software that’s easy to maintain and adapt. These guidelines have been derived from analyzing hundreds of real-world systems. Written by consultants from the Software Improvement Group (SIG), this book provides clear and concise explanations, with advice for turning the guidelines into practice. Examples for this edition are written in Java, while our companion C# book provides workable examples in that language. Write short units of code: limit the length of methods and constructors Write simple units of code: limit the number of branch points per method Write code once, rather than risk copying buggy code Keep unit interfaces small by extracting parameters into objects Separate concerns to avoid building large classes Couple architecture components loosely Balance the number and size of top-level components in your code Keep your codebase as small as possible Automate tests for your codebase Write clean code, avoiding "code smells" that indicate deeper problems

Code Complete

Code Complete Author Steve McConnell
ISBN-10 9780735636972
Release 2004-06-09
Pages 960
Download Link Click Here

Widely considered one of the best practical guides to programming, Steve McConnell’s original CODE COMPLETE has been helping developers write better software for more than a decade. Now this classic book has been fully updated and revised with leading-edge practices—and hundreds of new code samples—illustrating the art and science of software construction. Capturing the body of knowledge available from research, academia, and everyday commercial practice, McConnell synthesizes the most effective techniques and must-know principles into clear, pragmatic guidance. No matter what your experience level, development environment, or project size, this book will inform and stimulate your thinking—and help you build the highest quality code. Discover the timeless techniques and strategies that help you: Design for minimum complexity and maximum creativity Reap the benefits of collaborative development Apply defensive programming techniques to reduce and flush out errors Exploit opportunities to refactor—or evolve—code, and do it safely Use construction practices that are right-weight for your project Debug problems quickly and effectively Resolve critical construction issues early and correctly Build quality into the beginning, middle, and end of your project

Beautiful Code

Beautiful Code Author Greg Wilson
ISBN-10 0596554672
Release 2007-06-26
Pages 620
Download Link Click Here

How do the experts solve difficult problems in software development? In this unique and insightful book, leading computer scientists offer case studies that reveal how they found unusual, carefully designed solutions to high-profile projects. You will be able to look over the shoulder of major coding and design experts to see problems through their eyes. This is not simply another design patterns book, or another software engineering treatise on the right and wrong way to do things. The authors think aloud as they work through their project's architecture, the tradeoffs made in its construction, and when it was important to break rules. This book contains 33 chapters contributed by Brian Kernighan, KarlFogel, Jon Bentley, Tim Bray, Elliotte Rusty Harold, Michael Feathers,Alberto Savoia, Charles Petzold, Douglas Crockford, Henry S. Warren,Jr., Ashish Gulhati, Lincoln Stein, Jim Kent, Jack Dongarra and PiotrLuszczek, Adam Kolawa, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Diomidis Spinellis, AndrewKuchling, Travis E. Oliphant, Ronald Mak, Rogerio Atem de Carvalho andRafael Monnerat, Bryan Cantrill, Jeff Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat, SimonPeyton Jones, Kent Dybvig, William Otte and Douglas C. Schmidt, AndrewPatzer, Andreas Zeller, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Arun Mehta, TV Raman,Laura Wingerd and Christopher Seiwald, and Brian Hayes. Beautiful Code is an opportunity for master coders to tell their story. All author royalties will be donated to Amnesty International.

UML for Java Programmers

UML for Java Programmers Author Robert C. Martin
ISBN-10 0131428489
Release 2003
Pages 249
Download Link Click Here

* *Compliant and up-to-date with the latest version of the industry standard for modelling software programs, UML 2.0 *Concise and practical; written for the Java programmer *Contains thorough Java code examples AND their related UML diagrams -- a critical and proven approach to learning


Refactoring Author Martin Fowler
ISBN-10 9780133065268
Release 2012-03-09
Pages 455
Download Link Click Here

As the application of object technology--particularly the Java programming language--has become commonplace, a new problem has emerged to confront the software development community. Significant numbers of poorly designed programs have been created by less-experienced developers, resulting in applications that are inefficient and hard to maintain and extend. Increasingly, software system professionals are discovering just how difficult it is to work with these inherited, "non-optimal" applications. For several years, expert-level object programmers have employed a growing collection of techniques to improve the structural integrity and performance of such existing software programs. Referred to as "refactoring," these practices have remained in the domain of experts because no attempt has been made to transcribe the lore into a form that all developers could use. . .until now. In Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, renowned object technology mentor Martin Fowler breaks new ground, demystifying these master practices and demonstrating how software practitioners can realize the significant benefits of this new process. With proper training a skilled system designer can take a bad design and rework it into well-designed, robust code. In this book, Martin Fowler shows you where opportunities for refactoring typically can be found, and how to go about reworking a bad design into a good one. Each refactoring step is simple--seemingly too simple to be worth doing. Refactoring may involve moving a field from one class to another, or pulling some code out of a method to turn it into its own method, or even pushing some code up or down a hierarchy. While these individual steps may seem elementary, the cumulative effect of such small changes can radically improve the design. Refactoring is a proven way to prevent software decay. In addition to discussing the various techniques of refactoring, the author provides a detailed catalog of more than seventy proven refactorings with helpful pointers that teach you when to apply them; step-by-step instructions for applying each refactoring; and an example illustrating how the refactoring works. The illustrative examples are written in Java, but the ideas are applicable to any object-oriented programming language.

The Software Craftsman

The Software Craftsman Author Sandro Mancuso
ISBN-10 9780134052502
Release 2014-12-14
Pages 288
Download Link Click Here

"After many decades - and even more methodologies - software projects are still failing. Why? Managers see software development as a production line. Companies don't know how to manage software projects and hire good developers. Many developers still behave like factory workers, providing terrible service to their employers and clients. Agile was a big step forward, but not enough. What's missing? The right mindset - for both developers and their employers. As developers worldwide are recognizing, the right mindset is craftsmanship ... Mancuso explains what craftsmanship means to the developer and his or her organization, and shows how to live it every day in your real-world development environment. Mancuso shows how software craftsmanship fits with and helps you improve upon best-practice technical disciplines such as agile and lean, taking all your development projects to the next level. You'll learn how to change the disastrous perception that software developers are the same as factory workers, and that software projects can be run like factories. By placing greater professionalism, technical excellence, and customer satisfaction at the heart of what you do, you won't just deliver more value to everyone involved: you'll be happier and more fulfilled doing it"--Publisher's description.

Coder to Developer

Coder to Developer Author Mike Gunderloy
ISBN-10 0782151256
Release 2006-02-20
Pages 320
Download Link Click Here

"Two thumbs up" —Gregory V. Wilson, Dr. Dobbs Journal (October 2004) No one can disparage the ability to write good code. At its highest levels, it is an art. But no one can confuse writing good code with developing good software. The difference—in terms of challenges, skills, and compensation—is immense. Coder to Developer helps you excel at the many non-coding tasks entailed, from start to finish, in just about any successful development project. What's more, it equips you with the mindset and self-assurance required to pull it all together, so that you see every piece of your work as part of a coherent process. Inside, you'll find plenty of technical guidance on such topics as: Choosing and using a source code control system Code generation tools--when and why Preventing bugs with unit testing Tracking, fixing, and learning from bugs Application activity logging Streamlining and systematizing the build process Traditional installations and alternative approaches To pull all of this together, the author has provided the source code for Download Tracker, a tool for organizing your collection of downloaded code, that's used for examples throughout this book. The code is provided in various states of completion, reflecting every stage of development, so that you can dig deep into the actual process of building software. But you'll also develop "softer" skills, in areas such as team management, open source collaboration, user and developer documentation, and intellectual property protection. If you want to become someone who can deliver not just good code but also a good product, this book is the place to start. If you must build successful software projects, it's essential reading.

Clean Coder

Clean Coder Author Robert C. Martin
ISBN-10 9783826696954
Release 2014-03-26
Pages 216
Download Link Click Here

Verhaltensregeln für professionelle Programmierer Erfolgreiche Programmierer haben eines gemeinsam: Die Praxis der Software-Entwicklung ist ihnen eine Herzensangelegenheit. Auch wenn sie unter einem nicht nachlassenden Druck arbeiten, setzen sie sich engagiert ein. Software-Entwicklung ist für sie eine Handwerkskunst. In Clean Coder stellt der legendäre Software-Experte Robert C. Martin die Disziplinen, Techniken, Tools und Methoden vor, die Programmierer zu Profis machen. Dieses Buch steckt voller praktischer Ratschläge und behandelt alle wichtigen Themen vom professionellen Verhalten und Zeitmanagement über die Aufwandsschätzung bis zum Refactoring und Testen. Hier geht es um mehr als nur um Technik: Es geht um die innere Haltung. Martin zeigt, wie Sie sich als Software-Entwickler professionell verhalten, gut und sauber arbeiten und verlässlich kommunizieren und planen. Er beschreibt, wie Sie sich schwierigen Entscheidungen stellen und zeigt, dass das eigene Wissen zu verantwortungsvollem Handeln verpflichtet. In diesem Buch lernen Sie: Was es bedeutet, sich als echter Profi zu verhalten Wie Sie mit Konflikten, knappen Zeitplänen und unvernünftigen Managern umgehen Wie Sie beim Programmieren im Fluss bleiben und Schreibblockaden überwinden Wie Sie mit unerbittlichem Druck umgehen und Burnout vermeiden Wie Sie Ihr Zeitmanagement optimieren Wie Sie für Umgebungen sorgen, in denen Programmierer und Teams wachsen und sich wohlfühlen Wann Sie Nein sagen sollten – und wie Sie das anstellen Wann Sie Ja sagen sollten – und was ein Ja wirklich bedeutet Großartige Software ist etwas Bewundernswertes: Sie ist leistungsfähig, elegant, funktional und erfreut bei der Arbeit sowohl den Entwickler als auch den Anwender. Hervorragende Software wird nicht von Maschinen geschrieben, sondern von Profis, die sich dieser Handwerkskunst unerschütterlich verschrieben haben. Clean Coder hilft Ihnen, zu diesem Kreis zu gehören. Über den Autor: Robert C. Uncle Bob Martin ist seit 1970 Programmierer und bei Konferenzen in aller Welt ein begehrter Redner. Zu seinen Büchern gehören Clean Code – Refactoring, Patterns, Testen und Techniken für sauberen Code und Agile Software Development: Principles, Patterns, and Practices. Als überaus produktiver Autor hat Uncle Bob Hunderte von Artikeln, Abhandlungen und Blogbeiträgen verfasst. Er war Chefredakteur bei The C++ Report und der erste Vorsitzende der Agile Alliance. Martin gründete und leitet die Firma Object Mentor, Inc., die sich darauf spezialisiert hat, Unternehmen bei der Vollendung ihrer Projekte behilflich zu sein.

The Art of Readable Code

The Art of Readable Code Author Dustin Boswell
ISBN-10 9781449314217
Release 2011-11-03
Pages 206
Download Link Click Here

As programmers, we’ve all seen source code that’s so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they’re bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it—even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languages, each chapter dives into a different aspect of coding, and demonstrates how you can make your code easy to understand. Simplify naming, commenting, and formatting with tips that apply to every line of code Refine your program’s loops, logic, and variables to reduce complexity and confusion Attack problems at the function level, such as reorganizing blocks of code to do one task at a time Write effective test code that is thorough and concise—as well as readable "Being aware of how the code you create affects those who look at it later is an important part of developing software. The authors did a great job in taking you through the different aspects of this challenge, explaining the details with instructive examples." —Michael Hunger, passionate Software Developer

Coders at Work

Coders at Work Author Peter Seibel
ISBN-10 9781430219484
Release 2009-09-16
Pages 632
Download Link Click Here

Peter Seibel interviews 15 of the most interesting computer programmers alive today in Coders at Work, offering a companion volume to Apress’s highly acclaimed best-seller Founders at Work by Jessica Livingston. As the words “at work” suggest, Peter Seibel focuses on how his interviewees tackle the day-to-day work of programming, while revealing much more, like how they became great programmers, how they recognize programming talent in others, and what kinds of problems they find most interesting. Hundreds of people have suggested names of programmers to interview on the Coders at Work web site: The complete list was 284 names. Having digested everyone’s feedback, we selected 15 folks who’ve been kind enough to agree to be interviewed: Frances Allen: Pioneer in optimizing compilers, first woman to win the Turing Award (2006) and first female IBM fellow Joe Armstrong: Inventor of Erlang Joshua Bloch: Author of the Java collections framework, now at Google Bernie Cosell: One of the main software guys behind the original ARPANET IMPs and a master debugger Douglas Crockford: JSON founder, JavaScript architect at Yahoo! L. Peter Deutsch: Author of Ghostscript, implementer of Smalltalk-80 at Xerox PARC and Lisp 1.5 on PDP-1 Brendan Eich: Inventor of JavaScript, CTO of the Mozilla Corporation Brad Fitzpatrick: Writer of LiveJournal, OpenID, memcached, and Perlbal Dan Ingalls: Smalltalk implementor and designer Simon Peyton Jones: Coinventor of Haskell and lead designer of Glasgow Haskell Compiler Donald Knuth: Author of The Art of Computer Programming and creator of TeX Peter Norvig: Director of Research at Google and author of the standard text on AI Guy Steele: Coinventor of Scheme and part of the Common Lisp Gang of Five, currently working on Fortress Ken Thompson: Inventor of UNIX Jamie Zawinski: Author of XEmacs and early Netscape/Mozilla hacker What you’ll learnHow the best programmers in the world do their jobs! Who this book is for Programmers interested in the point of view of leaders in the field. Programmers looking for approaches that work for some of these outstanding programmers. Table of Contents Jamie Zawinski Brad Fitzpatrick Douglas Crockford Brendan Eich Joshua Bloch Joe Armstrong Simon Peyton Jones Peter Norvig Guy Steele Dan Ingalls L Peter Deutsch Ken Thompson Fran Allen Bernie Cosell Donald Knuth

Effective Programming

Effective Programming Author Jeff Atwood
ISBN-10 147830054X
Release 2012-07-04
Pages 278
Download Link Click Here

ABOUT THE BOOK Jeff Atwood began the Coding Horror blog in 2004, and is convinced that it changed his life. He needed a way to keep track of software development over time - whatever he was thinking about or working on. He researched subjects he found interesting, then documented his research with a public blog post, which he could easily find and refer to later. Over time, increasing numbers of blog visitors found the posts helpful, relevant and interesting. Now, approximately 100,000 readers visit the blog per day and nearly as many comment and interact on the site. Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code is your one-stop shop for all things programming. Jeff writes with humor and understanding, allowing for both seasoned programmers and newbies to appreciate the depth of his research. From such posts as "The Programmer's Bill of Rights" and "Why Cant Programmers... Program?" to "Working With the Chaos Monkey," this book introduces the importance of writing responsible code, the logistics involved, and how people should view it more as a lifestyle than a career. TABLE OF CONTENTS - Introduction - The Art of Getting Shit Done - Principles of Good Programming - Hiring Programmers the Right Way - Getting Your Team to Work Together - The Batcave: Effective Workspaces for Programmers - Designing With the User in Mind - Security Basics: Protecting Your Users' Data - Testing Your Code, So it Doesn't Suck More Than it Has To - Building, Managing and Benefiting from a Community - Marketing Weasels and How Not to Be One - Keeping Your Priorities Straight EXCERPT FROM THE BOOK As a software developer, you are your own worst enemy. The sooner you realize that, the better off you'll be.I know you have the best of intentions. We all do. We're software developers; we love writing code. It's what we do. We never met a problem we couldn't solve with some duct tape, a jury-rigged coat hanger and a pinch of code. But Wil Shipley argues that we should rein in our natural tendencies to write lots of code: The fundamental nature of coding is that our task, as programmers, is to recognize that every decision we make is a trade-off. To be a master programmer is to understand the nature of these trade-offs, and be conscious of them in everything we write.In coding, you have many dimensions in which you can rate code: Brevity of codeFeaturefulnessSpeed of executionTime spent codingRobustnessFlexibility Now, remember, these dimensions are all in opposition to one another. You can spend three days writing a routine which is really beautiful and fast, so you've gotten two of your dimensions up, but you've spent three days, so the "time spent coding" dimension is way down.So, when is this worth it? How do we make these decisions? The answer turns out to be very sane, very simple, and also the one nobody, ever, listens to: Start with brevity. Increase the other dimensions as required by testing. I couldn't agree more. I've given similar advice when I exhorted developers to Code Smaller. And I'm not talking about a reductio ad absurdum contest where we use up all the clever tricks in our books to make the code fit into less physical space. I'm talking about practical, sensible strategies to reduce the volume of code an individual programmer has to read to understand how a program works. Here's a trivial little example of what I'm talking about: if (s == String.Empty)if (s == "") It seems obvious to me that the latter case is... the book to read more!